Priming the surface is a pre-painting operation. The primer prepares the base for the subsequent application of finishing materials, protecting and strengthening it, improving adhesion properties.
- improving the adhesion of paint to the surface;
- foundation strengthening;
- alignment or reduction of absorbent properties;
- the binding of non-conforming parts of the base;
- reduction of consumption and uniform paint application;
- protection against mold and mildew.
For priming paints and special priming preparations are used. Most often they are made in relation to a specific material, for example, to wood, plastered walls, metal. There are also drugs and paints for general use. The primer may be ready to use or be in the form of a concentrate that must be diluted in certain proportions.
The work will require the following tools and additional materials:
- Wide brush.
- Work gloves.
- Protective mask
- Big brush.
- Little brush.
- Disk brush for drill.
- Spray bottle.
- Metal brush.
- Paint mixer
Primer walls inside the house and facades
When painting walls, the rule is obligatory – the base should always be more durable than the paint applied to it. Primers are mainly applied to the plaster or to the coating of adhesive paint. Their task is to bind numerous particles of dried paint or plaster mass, which improves the adhesion of paints and makes the base more uniform. They also reduce its absorbing properties, which means that less paint is consumed during painting (usually only one coat is enough after priming). In rooms where air humidity is high, a water barrier is created on the wall surface. Primers can also be applied on gypsum boards, on bare outer walls.
The primer of the walls is better to produce at temperatures above +5 ° C.
Before proceeding with the primer, it is necessary to clean the wall from falling off plaster, crumbling paint or wallpaper. Fat stains should also be removed. All molds should be eliminated accordingly.
ATTENTION: Fresh plaster can be primed only after 3-4 weeks.
Primer paint should be thoroughly mixed and, if necessary, diluted with a special agent recommended by the manufacturer for this purpose.
The primer is applied with a brush or roller. To achieve the result, it is necessary to apply the number of layers recommended by the manufacturer (this information is usually placed on the package). Most often one layer is applied. Two layers are recommended to be applied on surfaces with the increased absorbing characteristics. The second layer is superimposed on the base, without waiting for the first to dry.
A layer of decorative paint can be applied 24 hours after priming.
TIP: If you are not sure which tool to choose – a special paint or primer, conduct a simple experiment. Rub the wall with your finger. If after this a dirty mark remains, it means that the wall must be primed before painting.
Facades are grounded in the same way. It must be remembered that the work must be carried out on surfaces dry and not heated by the sun.
Primers for walls
On the market are available products that perform several functions simultaneously and are used in all climatic conditions. Their choice depends on the condition of the substrate and on the type of paint that will be used to paint the surface.
The most popular and at the same time universal are:
- primer-strengthening impregnations – most often these are aqueous dispersions of acrylic resin with additional substances. They strengthen the base and protect from moisture, at the same time forming a vapor-permeable film. Besides the fact that they improve the adhesion of exterior paints, they also prevent the appearance on the painted walls of places where color change may occur. Such impregnations are used for priming the walls inside the house. They are used on plasterboard, gypsum, cement-lime and lime plaster;
- priming acrylic and latex paints – used for both exterior and interior work. Deeply absorbed into the wall and strengthen the surface. They are used as a primer for decorative emulsion and acrylic paints;
- solvent-based primer paints are means that are deeply absorbed into the surface, water-repellent, but easily flammable. Bind the particles of plaster and dust on the surface of the walls. Do not trap water vapor absorbed and evaporated by the walls. Suitable for both indoor and outdoor use. They are used not only for priming plaster and painted surfaces, but also for wood and asbestos-cement slabs;
- primer acrylic varnishes – penetrate deep into the wall and have a high degree of water resistance. Bind particles of dust on the surface of the wall and improve the adhesion of paints. Used for priming exterior walls;
- water silicate primer – designed for priming exterior lime, cement-lime plaster, sand-lime brick and concrete. They can also prime the old lime, cement-lime and silicate paints. They are deeply absorbed into the pores without creating a mineralized coating on the surface;
- epoxy paints – most often two-component. Before use, the contents of both packages must be mixed. Dissolved with water. Used for priming concrete surfaces indoors.
Wood is primed mainly in order to protect it from moisture and reduce its absorbing properties. Primers are absorbed into the pores of the tree, compact them and protect against the destruction of the decorative layer in case of deformation and expansion of the tree. Some preparations lead to the lightening of wood, which is of particular importance before varnishing old or previously repainted wood surfaces.
Before painting a tree, especially a fresh one, it is necessary to treat the knots and cover its surface with a primer preparation.
- Using a spatula, remove the resin from the knots. If, after this, the resin still appears, the knots should be heated with a thermogun and reassemble the spilled resin with a spatula.
- The surface must be carefully polished with sandpaper. The dust formed after grinding is best wiped off with a cloth soaked in solvent.
- To cover the knots with a special insulating preparation or shellac, which will delay the resin flowing from them.
- Before treatment, the wood must be dry, smooth and clean. It should not be greasy stains and resin smudges. Fat from the tree can be removed with nitro solvent or extraction gasoline.
- The primer should be thoroughly mixed. If it is drying oil, then the first layer should be applied after dilution with extraction gasoline in a 1: 1 ratio.
- The primer is applied with a brush. After treatment, the surface can be painted the next day.